Friday, July 30, 2021


 If you find this blog valuable, please comment below. There are several paths forward, two of which do not include keeping this blog active.

One of the choices I'm considering is moving this blog to WordPress. I need a volunteer who can follow the steps and install the IP blocking software so I can get rid of all visits from Toledo Telephone USA, Poland, Russia and Korea. 

Another option is to make this blog invitation only. Probably not the best choice.

I can recreate the private blog and leave this one up with a notice that new posts appear on it. People can request access, and I can weed out the trouble makers.

I can leave this blog as is and do nothing.

I may move pertinent information about my books to a publisher's web page. That would mean a publisher's blog on which new research would NOT appear, and a web site for Fluttering Wings Press. 

I can switch to an invitation-only forum similar to that of a scholars' group to which I belong, leaving this blog up and open to web searches, but with comments turned off and NO reference to the group forum.

Saturday, July 24, 2021

Conley, yet again ...

 There are issues, questions that I'd like resolved but probably won't pursue. But here they are if you wish to try:

1. Emma D. Conley's birth name and parents.

2. Letters by or to W. H. Conley. I have yet to get an answer from the C&MA archive. The issue seems to be a covid virus closure and a move. 

3. I've found a limited number of newspaper articles between 1875 and 1885 that mention Conley. There must be more. I'm just not finding them.

4. Articles about Bethany Faith Cure Home in Pittsburgh. Send even if you think I may have them.

5. Conley continued to have a business relationship with A. D. Jones into the 1890s. We still need a volunteer who can visit the Library of Congress and photograph the remaining issues of Day Star. Ask me for details.

5. Faith Cure pamphlets published in Pennsylvania between 1880 and 1895. I am familiar with the Library of Congress collection but haven't asked for copies of anything from them - yet.

A note to "Older Other Sheep": If you believe I've misunderstood your intent, email me directly and we'll resolve the misunderstanding.

Friday, July 23, 2021

...and the answer is...

Relating to the previous post, the answer is "leaders." I don't know what paper your clipping is from but when the Pittsburgh Post for 26 November 1885 reported events (maybe in another edition to yours) this was the result.


Deciphering text

 Some of the available microfilms are hard to read. Below is an extract from an 1885 newspaper article. I cannot make out one word: "hers was one of the greatest cures of the ???" Can you decipher this?

The word may be "leaders," but I am not at all certain of that. Help!

Thursday, July 22, 2021


The Cole Sisters.

 "The women in question were named Cole and were sisters living at No. 14 Linton street." - Pittsburgh Press, Jan 18 1892.

These women play a brief part in Conley's story. But I would like to know their complete names. I've looked two period city directories with no result. I searched both name and address. Can you do better than I have?

Faith in God (2)

I asked Bruce where he found the reference to the paper Faith in God and he gave me a link to the Pittsburg Dispatch for March 6, 1889, page 2. There was a substantial article covering two columns.

The first part of the article was taken up with glowing testimonials. The latter part mentioned a "wealthy gentleman of Allegheny (who we assume must be Conley) and also the paper Faith in God going out with 30,000 copies.

One hopes more can be found on Conley's activities and motivations at this time.

The Hamilton Building was at 91 and 93 Fifth Avenue in Pittsburgh. Does that address seem familiar to you?

Tuesday, July 20, 2021

Faith in God

 This was a periodical published in Pittsburgh about 1888-1900. I've checked and the Library of Congress. It's not listed there. Any issue will help, but the 1888-1897 issues are the most important. Can you find any?

Additional: Bethany Tract Rooms, an adjunct to Bethany Faith Cure Home in Pittsburgh, published a series of tracts in 1889-1890. While published anonymously, the appear to have been written by Conley. I do not know titles. And I'm at a lost as to how to proceed. I've enquired of the Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh. Too soon to expect an answer, but I do not expect a fruitful result. 

Bethany Tract Rooms was later called Bethany Bible and Tract Repository.

Do your best!

Conley's Business

 I am including basic information about Riter & Conley. I do not need help with this aspect of Conley's life, though if you have something that might help, do pass it along. My reasoning here is that the company was a major part of his life, and basic information will give my readers insight into the man.

R & C had safety issues, as most industrial institutions did in that era. The company's response allows some insight into the men who ran the company. The issues over wages and hours that filled the steel industry in the 1890s [think Homestead Insurrection], affected Conley. What he said reveals his thinking. 

Your thoughts are welcome.

Update: My access to Pittsburgh newspapers published between 1884-1889 is limited. Anything you can find about the Conleys from those years, perhaps on will be helpful.

Sunday, July 18, 2021

Emma Conley

I had a "folk memory" that the Conley's daughter, Emma, was adopted. The usual searches on Ancestry and yielded nothing, but assuming that the indexing system for these sites might be a little less than perfect, I tried a visual examination of the actual newspapers for the week of her death. In the Pittsburgh Daily Post for 15 December, 1881, notice of her passing was recorded. And there was the information that she had been adopted.

Thursday, July 15, 2021

Conley again


I need what ever information you can supply about Conley's daughter Emma. Anything at all will help.

Wednesday, July 14, 2021


The July 31, 1897, Pittsburgh Press has a death notice and comment about Conley's will. I do not have access, but I believe those with an Ancestry account do. Can you help?


Here are two cuttings from paper.

From page 2

From page 7

Tuesday, July 13, 2021

For another project

 Another German language card to translate. Please.

Friday, July 9, 2021

Bern Bible House

 Markus, a friend to this blog and my research, sent a mass of material many months ago. This is one of the items he sent. This post card shows the architect's drawing for the "new" Bern Bethel. Can we date this card?


Wednesday, July 7, 2021

This Blog


            Our blog attracts a variety of readers ranging from serious researchers to the merely curious. All are welcome. Except sometimes.

            I will delete argumentative comments. I expect comment-trail posts to be polite. If you throw a temper tantrum, I will ban you.This is a history blog focusing on the Watch Tower’s Russell years. Occasionally we discuss something from the Rutherford era. We do not allow controversial comments, unsupported by original documents. Unsupported speculation is not history, and it is unethical to present it as such. If you make a claim without documentation to support it, I will view it as an attempt to foment controversy.

            I am open to articles by those not on the editorial list. They must be exceptionally well researched, footnoted to original sources and well written. If English is not your primary language, we will work with you.

            An original source is a journal or diary, letters, contemporary newspaper or periodical articles, something in the character’s own words, contemporary legal documents. You must use reasonable caution. For instance, periodical articles about Russell often contain fabrications. If I see something in your otherwise well-written article that is misleading, I will return it to you for further research.

            I do not allow fables to pass as solid research. This includes things like the Rutherford ‘bobby pin” story. The photo that supposedly shows him drunk that in fact shows him drinking root beer is another misrepresentation. There are others. Before you’re gullible enough to swallow such things as fact, do some real research.

            We do not indulge in personalities here. No insults. No arguments. I do not allow requests for deeply personal information. You may not ask me – or anyone else – about our age, hair color, or any other irrelevant thing.. You may not ask for specifics of someone’s income, place of residence, or any similar thing. You may presume that individuals on our editorial staff are academically competent. In this setting, details are none of your business. Our research speaks for itself.

            I do not care what your religious or social views are. They’re yours. Keep them to yourself. There are other forums where you may express those.

            Most of the Watchtower publications can be found online. It is rare that we will fulfill a request for a scan or photocopy. There are many newspaper archives. One of these is provided by the Library of Congress. It continues to grow. Search key words and names, but remember that newspapers like to fabricate. Google Books is an excellent resource. [] There are other online libraries. Not all books are created equal. Use good judgment.

            Extraneous, off topic comments are unwelcome.

            I do not accept invitations to podcasts, call in shows, radio interviews, or any thing similar.

            Occasionally we get comments from people who need to develop their reading comprehension. There are web pages that will help with that.

            We attract trolls. Google, who owns Blogger, blocks some at the gate. Others show up, but I disallow their comments. We have a reader from Poland that is very unwelcome. [Gdansk, Pomorskie, Poland IP Address: Upc Polska (] And we have another whose ISP is traced to Toledo, Washington, United States, IP Address:

Toledo Telephone Co ( I cannot stop them from reading this blog. But no comment from them will appear here. Do not join this group.


 A friend to this blog asked a question about the Society printed Rotherham New Testament. Can you answer his question?

Dear Bruce,

Writing Archives got in touch with a couple of years ago because I have a copy of one of the first Bible’s that the Bible House published: 
The New Testament. Newly Translated (From The Greek Text of Tregelles) and Critically Emphasised. With An Introduction and Occasional Notes

They were doing some research into the various printings of the Bible.

I can see why they were doing this now.

I thought that you mentioned Rotherham in Volume 1, but I couldn’t find the reference.

Do you know why Rotherham’s translation was favoured by the Bible Students?

Tuesday, July 6, 2021

I need this ...

 A booklet in the British Library, St. Pancras, is not available to me. Perhaps one of our British readers can acquire a scan and share it. The title is: 

An Answer to the Latest Slogan of Russellism: "The New World has Begun!" [the title of a lecture by C.J. Woodworth based upon the writings of Charles Taze Russell]. Also an examination of the statement that "Millions now Living will never Die" [the title of a work by Joseph F. Rutherford, also based upon the writings of C.T. Russell].

The author is William Charnock Procter. 

Can you help?

Mystery names

 A friend to this blog acquired one of Storrs' books. These names are on the front free endpaper. If you know anything about them, do let us know.

Monday, July 5, 2021

The Franz brothers and the draft


Three members of the Franz family all had to complete draft registration cards over May-June in 1917.

The first was Albert Edward Franz (1889-1940), He was drafted on May 24, 1917, at the age of 27. At the time he was a well-known Bible Student, featuring in the Photodrama work in Chicago and regularly writing for the St Paul Enterprise newspaper (later called the New Era Enterprise).

In answer to question 12 on the card, Do you claim exemption from the draft (specify grounds)? Albert wrote: “Yes, A Christian and member of the International Bible Students Association, also physical.”

Two weeks later, two of Albert’s brothers were also drafted, on the same day, on June 5, 1917.

The older of the two was Herman Franz (1891-1977). He was 25. He also claimed exemption. His answer: “Yes, Student member of the International Bible Students Association.”

On the same day, a third brother was drafted, Frederic Franz (1893-1992). He was 23. He too claimed exemption. “Yes, Member of International Bible Students Association.” He gave his present occupation as “Ordained Minister and Stenographer.” He would spend most of his life in Bethel and became vice-president of the Watch Tower Society from 1945-1977 and president from 1977 to his death in 1992.

A fourth brother, Alvin Franz (1901-1978) appears to have just missed the draft because of his age.

The draft cards for WW2 did not provide a section for someone to claim exemption. However, the WW2 card for Fred Franz is of interest. It gives his occupation as “Administer of the Gospel under the direction of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.” His contact was Grant Suiter, his residence was 124 Columbia Heights and his workplace was 117 Adams Street, Brooklyn.

Thursday, July 1, 2021

Spirit of the Word

 The Spirit of the Word was A. P. Adams' magazine. Issues are very, very rare. A reprint of volume one is on ebay. This was done decades ago, and it omits key letters and (I think based on a Watch Tower comment) that it omits a key article. It lacks any mention of Zion's Watch Tower. But some of you may find this useful -

Wednesday, June 30, 2021

For another project

 I cannot read this. Can you translate it for me?

Monday, June 28, 2021


 I'm not allowed to bribe you to leave a review of vol 2 of Separate Identity on Amazon. But a positive review will help sales. There is only ONE and given the number sold, that seems low. I fund research from sales. A review there and elsewhere will help. Please.

Saturday, June 26, 2021

Riter and Conley Plant in 1907 and 1913

Periodic floods were the norm in Pittsburgh. The 1907 flood was turned into a mystery novel by Mary Roberts Rinehart. These photos were taken during the 1907 and 1913 floods and show the Riter and Conley plant.



Friday, June 25, 2021

A Reminder

 What you think about the Watchtower Society is your business. Bringing your opinions here, especially unfounded opinions, even if presented in the most subtle way, will result in your comment being deleted.

This is a history blog. Nothing more.

Also, I expect you to do your own research before you ask me or another poster questions or send requests.

Thursday, June 24, 2021

W. H. Conley

 I need Conley's letters or other papers. Anything, really, related to him. 

Click on the image to see it entire. From Iron Age of October 1, 1891. 

Saturday, June 19, 2021

The Diary of John H Paton (1900)

In 1981 Lucile Swain Hough donated a typwritten transcript of the diary of John Henry Paton for the year 1900 to the Almont Public Library. Paton and his extended family lived at Almont, Lapeer County, Michigan, for most of his life. His magazine The World’s Hope was published there from 1882 to 1916.

Paton of course was an early associate of CTR and wrote for Zion’s Watch Tower before starting his own paper to promote Universalist views. He is a good source for historical research because he tried to keep in touch with many people, and his paper reveals the subsequent history of a number of early associates of CTR after they parted company with him.

What happened to the original diary is unknown. How accurate and complete is the transcript is also unknown. What we have is not very detailed, often brief notes about events and people, many of whom will mean nothing to a modern reader. But there are a few insights, and this article tries to extract the few items that link up with Watch Tower history.

The title page tells us who provided the transcript.

Lucile Hough was a grand-daughter of John H Paton. Her mother, Annie Paton Swain (1883-1969) was a daughter of John Paton. Lucile would have known John Paton as a child; she was 12 years old when he died and was living at the same address in the 1920 census.

Paton traveled widely, especially making use of the railways, electric cars in cities, horse and buggy, and also the new fangled motor car. However, it was the railway that made longer journeys possible. The same would hold true for Charles Taze Russell. Paton regularly listed where he stayed (or “staid” as he always spelled it) and where he dined. He commented regularly on the weather and how his health was. Back home he saw to it that his paper The World’s Hope had full copy and came out on time.

Paton had been ordained as a Baptist minister, before switching to Advent Christian, and then had furrowed his own path with Nelson Barbour, CTR, and finally his own independent Universalist ministry. However, he was quite prepared to preach anywhere that would have him. From the diary, he seems to have had most invitations from Baptist and M.E. Churches. As shown by his death certificate he viewed himself throughout his life as a clergyman, a “preacher of the gospel” but with the title “Rev.”

As the Rev. John Paton, he expected financial reimbusement for his efforts. This comes up quite early on in the diary. Visiting Richland on Sunday, January 14, he commented “Preached three times for M.E. minister, morning and night in Richland.” But after listing his sermons - “Rec’d no money.”

Like many of the era, he supplemented his income from preaching and publishing by engaging in some small scale farming. So there are entries like November 26: “cow taken sick.” November 27: “cow suffering.”  November 28: “cow died.” But all was not lost – after preaching at Peck and Yale (north of Detroit) on December 20: “Rec’d $10.25 towards a new cow.”

A few personal details emerge. Paton had been involved in the American Civil war and regularly attended military reunions. One such in the diary was on August 23, 1900, in Detroit. Paton wrote: “Attended reunion of my old regiment and met about 100 of the boys. Aunt Addis went with me on the river with regiment.”

One such reunion four years earlier had been photographed. I am grateful to John Paton Marshall, a great grandson of John H. Paton, who made the photograph available. This one was taken at the Chicamauga and Chattanooga Military Park on September 18, 1895, and shows men of the 22nd Michigan Infantry, Volunteer 1st Division Reserve Corps. The cross at the very bottom of the photograph shows where John Paton is placed, and to his right are two of his brothers, first brother David and then standing to the right of him brother William.

Paton was also a Freemason and on December 3 attended the lodge meeting at Peck and Yale where a new “master” was installed.

Paton’s brief comments shed light on contemporary controversies at times. In the mid 1890s there was interest in the wider Bible Student community in a movement founded by Cyrus Teed, who rebranded himself as a Messiah figure named Koresh, and who founded a commune in Estero, Florida. One of his distinctive beliefs was that the earth was hollow with the sun as a kind of giant battery in the center. There was controversy in Pittsburgh in 1895 when one of the Watch Tower Society directors, Augustus Weimar, among others, defected to what became called Koreshanity. When Koresh died his followers believed he was only in a state of suspended animation, so refused to bury him until the issue was forced by public health officials. His mausoleum on the coast was demolished by a hurricane and his coffin washed out to sea and lost. This bizarre tale and the connection with certain former Watch Tower adherents was discussed in The Watch Tower and the Koreshan Unity if you use the search facility on this blog.

One might have thought that the interest in someone so off-the-wall would have soon petered out in the mid-1890s. But here in Paton’s diary for 1900, in an entry for June 18 from Peck and Yale he showed that many in his circle were also fascinated. Paton simply wrote: “All seem gone on Koresh.” Alas, there is no further comment on the subject.


It has been fun checking some of the names, but most have been readers of The World’s Hope or friends and family who do not have any obvious link to Watch Tower history.

One name took some time. On September 1 Paton visited Hattie (Brown) Rice. At the time he was visiting places like Pontiac and Orchard Lake, within striking distance of Detroit.

There was a Hugh Brown Rice who featured in very early Watch Tower magazines at the same time as Paton. It would have been nice to make a connection, but that has not been possible.

Hugh Brown Rice was someone who nearly wrote for Zion’s Watch Tower, but never did. His story is covered in the article H B Rice – an Impecunious Man, which can be found by using the search facility on this blog. Hugh Brown Rice wanted to be an Age to Come evangelist linked to The Restitution paper, but as business ventures failed and his family grew, financial pressures kept thwarting him. He eventually got a “proper job” and by the end of his life ended up quite financially secure.

The only two people named Hattie Brown Rice I could trace were a Hattie Brown who married a Rice, and then as Hattie Brown Rice married again. The other was a Harriett Blanche (with the sobriquet “Hattie Brown”) Rice born in 1872. Neither seems to have any connection with Hugh Brown Rice of fleeting Watch Tower association. But neither do they have any obvious connection wth John Paton.

Tiptoeing onto firmer ground there were two areas he visited where some familiar names from Watch Tower history appear.

There was Chicago where he spoke at meetings at 6006 Green Street over September 18-19. On the 19th he wrote: “Had good meeting at night. Sister Russell present… Bro. Keith present.”

Taking “Brother Keith” first – Benjamin Wallace Keith had played one key role in what became Watch Tower history. As an associate of Nelson Barbour he had noted that the Emphatic Diaglott rendered the Greek word “parousia” as “presence” rather than “coming.” When brought to Barbour’s attention this was a key factor in the teaching of an invisible second presence for Jesus Christ. Keith supported Barbour and wrote for his magazine and knew CTR well when he came on board. When Barbour and CTR split, Keith supported CTR and the fledgling Zion’s Watch Tower magazine. He was listed on the front page as a regular contributor from its start in July 1879 until early 1881.

When John Paton split from CTR and founded The World’s Hope, Keith chose that path and was often mentioned in its pages. Keith’s story can be found in Separate Identity volume one.

Perhaps of even greater interest is a reference to “Sister Russell.” Was this Maria or someone else of the same name? Paton would have known Maria quite well as he officiated at her wedding to CTR back in 1879. Also Maria would have cause to visit Chicago because her brother Lemuel, a lawyer, lived there. It was to Lemuel in Chicago that she first went when she left CTR in 1897. If this is our Sister Russell, it appears that she still kept in contact with some from the old community and had fellowship with them in 1900.

There are two other references to the name Russell in the diary. From December 14: “Expected to go to Assyria (probably the townhip in Michigan), but received no reply to my letter to Bro. Russell.”  There seems no way of knowing whether Paton would have written to CTR this long after their parting, or whether this was an unrelated “Brother Russell.” Either way, he didn’t get an answer.

The other reference to the name was in Indianapolis on July 29, Paton wrote: “Did not preach, but visited. Attended meeting of Russell people.” We note that, unlike some visits to Baptist and M.E. Churches, he wasn’t invited to speak on this occasion. But it also shows that long after the original parting of the ways there was still some contact between many individuals.

As well as Chicago there was one other area Paton visited where names from the past appeared. Over July 10-12 he was in Pittsburgh.

On July 10 he wrote: “Saw Mrs Carnahan, Conley & Walshan’s. Staid at Bro. Mann’s.

On July 11 he wrote: “Called at Dr. Buvinger’s and Bro. Englands, & had lunch at Mrs. Buvinger’s.”

On July 12 he left Pittsburgh for Elyria and wrote: “Avis met me at Station…Had evening meeting at Bro. Sherwood’s.”

So on July 10 he saw, among others, Mrs. Conley.  She was the widow of the first Society president, William Henry Conley. Conley had faded from view in the early 1880s and when the Society was incorporated in 1884 was no-where to be seen. He surfaced again with a letter of support over the Conspiracy Exposed and Harvest Siftings issue in 1894. But his religious journey had taken him elsewhere. Paton continued to visit him and in Conley’s obituary published in The World’s Hope for August 1, 1897, stated how “many times during these (more than twenty) years I have shared the hospitality of that the Christian home.” Had Paton not been away on his travels to receive the news too late, he would have attended the funeral. Conley’s obituary in Paton’s magazine was written by W.I. Mann.

So on the same 1900 trip to Pittsburgh, Paton visited Mann as well, and as he put it “staid” with him.

W I Mann as he was in 1900.

(With thanks to Bernhard who supplied the photo)

William Imrie Mann (1844-1930) had been around in the Nelson Barbour days, and when Zion’s Watch Tower started he was listed as contributor in the first issue, the same as Keith (see image above). He compiled a new hymnal for the paper’s readers called Songs of the Bride in 1879. When Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society was incorporated with CTR as president, Mann was vice-president. He resigned as a director in December 1891 and was officially replaced on April 11, 1892.

Like Keith, Mann was mentioned in the pages of Paton’s magazine. After his separation from CTR, he was mentioned in a letter CTR wrote to his wife Maria (Russell vs Russell 1906, exhibit 2, letter to “My Dear Wife” dated July 9, 1896). Here CTR lists some former associates who he now accuses of “evil surmisings and slanders and envy,” Mann is the first name on the list.

Another name from the past from the Pittsburgh trip is Buvinger. On July 11 Paton had “called at Dr. Buvinger’s and had lunch at Mrs Buvinger’s.” Although the name does not occur in Zion’s Watch Tower, the Buvingers were early associates of CTR. The original Dr. Buvinger had written letters to Barbour’s Herald of the Morning and George Storrs’ Bible Examiner, before supporting Paton. He died in 1891 but his widow (Mrs. Buvinger) lived on until 1925.

There is an interesting insight into Paton and the Buvingers in The World’s Hope for February 15, 1892 (I must thank Separate Identity volune one for the reference). The widow Emma Buvinger wrote Paton expressing appreciation for what he taught and how her two sons were now much interested. She asked Paton if she could have a photograph of himself and his wife. Paton offered to sell her one for 25 cents. A choice of three poses was offered.

The final names to consider here are those of Avis Hamlin and a Brother Sherwood.

As noted above, on July 12 Paton left Pittsburgh for Elyria and wrote: “Avis met me at Station…Had evening meeting at Bro. Sherwood’s.” The same names occur later in the year when he again visited Elyria. On October 19 in an entry about reaching Elyria by train: “Avis and Bro. Sherwood met me. Meeting at Sherwood’s.” The next day’s entry noted: “had another meeting at night at Sherwood’s.”

Avis was Avis Hamlin and she is mentioned in Zion’s Watch Tower. In the August 1880 issue CTR wrote that he would be visiting Elyria in his travels and noted that “Elyria meetings are in the charge of Sister Avis Hamlin.” These were meetngs of an independent fellowship because in October of that year Nelson Barbour’s Herald of the Morning announced plans to visit Elyria, “where Avis Hamlin may arrange.” According to the write-up in the November 1880 Herald three of the meetings were held at Avis’ home.

The story of Avis and the house church at the home of her friend (and possible relative, Thomas Sherwood) is told in Separate Identity volume one. She supported Barbour for some years, and hosted a visit of CTR, but ultimately chose John Paton in her later years. She would write a letter of appreciation for Paton’s October 1900 visit which he published in The World’s Hope for January 15, 1901. Thomas Sherwood died in 1902 and although Paton took the funeral and wrote an obituary he did not memtion Avis on that occasion (See The World’s Hope, May 15, 1902).

When Paton was greeted by Avis at the train station in 1900 she was already into her eighties. She soon became the oldest local resident in Elyria and as such became a bit of a celebrity. She featured regularly in snippets in the local paper.

For her 90th birthday she had her photograph in the paper, and her life story partly told. From the Elyria Republican, February 27, 1908:

On the occasion of her 93rd birthday, the newspaer reported that she recited a selection of poetry for some of her guests and “sang a little song for a favored few.”

With an election coming up, one of the last stories about her was from The Chronicle-Telegram for November 24, 1911.

The reference to “Lacked the Pants” is linked to an anecdote on why she hadn’t tried one of the new fangled aeroplanes as yet. Avis was determined to vote for women’s suffrage in the next election in February 1912. Sadly she wasn’t to make that date, but died on the last day of December 1911.

Regretably, the relevant issue of Paton’s magazine, The World’s Hope, is not available; but one may assume that he gave Avis an obituary, and may even have traveled to Elyria to conduct her funeral.

She was buried in the family grave of Edith Morehouse in the Ridgelawn Cemetery in Elyria.

A memorial exists, but doesn’t seem to have been photographed, and reportedly is now illegible on two of its four sides. However, the names that survive include those of Avis Hamlin herself (1818-1911), Andrew Morehouse (1840-1883) and Edith Morehouse (1849-1898). Andrew was Avis’ son by her first marriage to Samuel Morehouse, and Edith was Avis’ daughter-in-law. Andrew and Edith’s son, Max Morehouse (1865-1923), a prominent businessman, was a regular visitor to grandmother Avis in her final years.

Paton’s diary ended appropriately on December 31, with just a few brief notes for the first week of January 1901. His final entry for 1900: “This is the last day of the last week of the last .month of the last year of the Nineteenth Century. We sat up to see the New Year in. Good by (sic) 1900.”

As noted at the start of this article, it is a shame that the original is missing, and that diaries for other years do not appear to exist today.

Tuesday, June 15, 2021

Out of context paragraphs

 ... from volume three in progress:

            Adams wrote at the request of “a number of friends” near Beverly, Massachusetts. His letter itself seems to belie that claim. Instead, it seems that he wrote the letter, taking it from person to person to gather signatures. The initiative was his, though that does not diminish the support given by those endorsing it. “I can only say for myself and the little band of believers here,” he wrote, “that in the light of Scripture, type, prophecy and parable, and in the light of our past experience up to the present point, our position never was so satisfactory and convincing, to those who have eyes to see, as now.”

            This complex sentence shows them as far removed from the literalism that existed in the ‘movement’ before 1878 and which was the position Watch Tower adherents maintained. They saw in themselves the antitype of imagined Scriptural types. They saw each failure as progress. And there is a strong element of exclusivity. They saw their fragile, about to collapse, typology as truth, identifying themselves as those having “eyes to see,” apparently an allusion to Deuteronomy 29:2. At this point – late 1883 – there was nowhere else to turn. Adams quoted one of the Beverly adherents: “As one of our number has frequently said, though we sometimes, with heartsickness of hope deferred, grow weary in the way we never grow weary of it; sometimes with trembling hand we have clung to the silver cord of faith that as yet is our only claim to eternal life, and yet, thank God! we have held on.”

            Barbour strongly objected when, in 1894, Russell assumed the mantel of “the faithful and wise servant.” He did not object to Adams’, “The ‘prepared victuals’ fully sustain us,” an unmistakable reference to Matthew 24:47. This exposes the underlying conflict between Barbour and Russell. Each saw himself as the divinely appointed teacher.

World War One

 I hope you are all well. For those interested, two post surgery doctor appointments next week. Still on pain meds and such.

Now to the point of this post: Though it is past the era covered in Separate Identity three, I need material showing non Watch Tower interest in Gentile Times and prophetic interest in World War 1 and its aftermath. This will probably turn into a minor point in my introductory essay, but it is worth pursuing. 

Sunday, June 13, 2021

Photo identity?


See review of Separate Identity in previous post

Does anyone recognize this photograph?

I took the picture from a small historical display while visiting Germany as an international delegate in 2019. I am almost certain it was at Magdeburg where the old Society’s headquarters still owned (at least in part) by the Society were used for a Kingdom Hall and a place to feed and entertain visitors.

There was no caption for the photograph. I assume the photo must relate to Germany, although it should be noted on reflection that J F Rutherford is not there is person, this is only his photograph on display. Also the caption is in English. The other thing I noted was that the group is nearly all men, although there are a few women dotted about.

So – has anyone else ever seen this with more information?


We now know the history of this photo, and it is a little more recent than one might think. Read the comment trail for the full story. With thanks to Bernhard.

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Leave a review

 More reviews of Separate Identity, vol. 2, would be very helpful. Best review to date:


            I want to paint the portrait of the book and tell its qualities as I judge them, without unveiling if possible the treasures of its contents, nor the discoveries and the surprises waiting there for the reader.
            The 2 volumes of Separate identity, and a third one under preparation, constitute the first real reference work of historians addressing the birth and the first decade of the Watch Tower movement, from the double point of view of its doctrinal evolution and its progressive rise and turbulent development.    .
            The works of Herodotus are entitled Histories, of a Greek word meaning inquiry or investigation : for the first time ever, it is to such a work of investigation, a patient, comprehensive, in-depth as well as objective and impartial work, that the two historians Rachael de Vienne (until her death last year) and Bruce Schulz devote themselves, since over 15 years.
           This innovative work not only brought to light novel discoveries, but standing as a true work in progress, the research, as it went along and was enriched with new elements, sprang up, opening new pathways to explore, requiring new developments (some of them important enough to necessitate a supplementary third volume).
It inaugurates a new decisive step of the research into the history of the Watch Tower — the movement and the magazine —, characterized by an increased granularity (or level of detail) of several orders of magnitude.
            Thanks to their rigorous method, and their attention to telling details, Schulz and de Vienne’s research stands out from the works of previous authors who wrote about this period of the Watch Tower history, whose works are often mostly superficial, patchy, and simply rehashing earlier works, or accommodating to the recourse to second or even third-hand sources — when not downright biased or polemical.
            They also stand apart from the official history works published by the Watchtower Society, which are as a rule insufficiently documented, despite their custody of the archives of the movement, and sometimes inaccurate, and notoriously rushed, due to the lack of time or thinking imposed by editorial constraints (short deadlines, apologetical pretensions).
            It took historians almost 140 years to submit the issues of the first years of the Watch Tower, for a start, to a close and systematic reading, followed by a classification and a sound analysis. Rather than their heavily redacted Reprints that omit not only a vast amount of items rejected as irrelevant, but also a number of important contributions, — either for having been penned by redactors having dissented in the meantime, or for dealing with doctrines no longer finding favor, — the original issues of the magazine offer to the investigator, besides in-depth articles on doctrinal topics and debates, a rich palette of announcements of any kind, of news echos, of travel, mission and even accounting reports, together with an abundant “Letters to the Editor” section. No serious study should skimp on, sweep, dispense with, avoid, obviate this invaluable collection of facts, it is the non disposable starting point of any research worthy of the name.
            Not only did the authors exploit this corpus as the basis of their work, especially in Volume 2 of Separate Identity, but they extended their review to the innumerable papers, newspaper articles, discourses, tracts, and to the 6 volume collection, that flowed from the prolific pen of Charles Russell.
            Then, to resituate the teachings of Russell and his followers, as well as their progressive elaboration, they confronted them systematically with those of the dissenting groups or of groups related by a community of doctrine, through an examination of their respective writings.
            They particularly committed themselves to unscramble Charles Russell’s investigations in the perilous field of the final ends’ chronology, but they have above all deepened the analysis of the dual concern which is at the centre of his message, — focused on the merits of the Ransom by Jesus Christ, — as well as the contradictory reactions it had to elicit, either of fierce rejection, or of enthusiastic reception : viz. the blasphemous lie of the eternal torment reserved to almost all humans, in total contrast with the bright perspective of the times of the “restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began“ as heralded by St. Peter in his founding speech of Christianity at Pentecost.
            To describe the sequence of events that shaped the life of the movement, its growth, its evangelism and its trials and tribulations, and to place them in the context of the time, they performed a multitude of cross-checks with an abundant harvest of documents, often never seen before, gained after a tireless hunt for newspaper articles, narratives, books, yearbooks, catalogues, family genealogies, obituaries, official papers, not to forget an array of old photographs… this monumental documentary base not having benefited from any access to the official archive held by the Watchtower Society, except for a handful of documents made available in dribs and drabs, and one single photograph — a proof, if needed, of the independence of the research and its lack of sponsoring.
            A similar approach was followed to reconstruct the biographies of as many people as possible mentioned in the movement’s documents, even when they appear under a simple name: first-day followers, collaborators, propagandists, missionaries, traveling speakers, occasional correspondents, up to and including opponents of the movement.
            The outcome of this untiring hunt for documents and original sources followed by their exploitation (classification, analysis, interpretation), results in a voluminous data set made of a myriad of details. Thanks to the talent of the authors, the synthesis of this accumulation of well established facts, being anything but rebarbative, blends into a harmonious whole of a teeming richness.
            As can be seen by consulting its table of contents, Volume 2 articulates on 16 chapters that fit together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle providing a picture of the movement and its evolution seen from various angles : foundation and beginnings of the movement, segregation from the mainstream churches, organization into congregations, launch and funding of a huge publishing ministry, starting and extension of the evangelism, expansion of the field of activity to the United Kingdom, Canada, China, Africa, as well as the European Marches of the Ottoman Empire.
            The narrative, full of life, at times even thrilling as an adventure novel, interweaves with a portrait gallery presenting a variety of characters, often endearing, sometimes heroic, less frequently unsympathetic, and more than a few particularly colourful.
            The book opens with two prefaces where each of the authors begins by expressing a more personal view — and lets show through his or her own style — about their intentions, their expectations, their working method, the obstacles encountered, their opinion about the current state of research, and specifically the irreducible discrepancies between Russell and the Adventists. These exordia introduce a very elaborate monograph by Rachael de Vienne that broadens the project horizon, situating the characteristic teachings of the movement within the wider context of the history of Christian doctrines.
            The book ends with a To-be-followed : in an Afterword, it evokes the crisis that shook the movement around the year 1881, and led it to affirm its specificity by assuming a separate (organizational) identity, — thus reaching the conclusion of the research —, defering the detailed development of the circumstances to a third and final (?) volume of the series.
            Last but not least, Volume 2 incorporates no less than 1813 notes, and quite as many references, an eloquent invitation to plunge into the original sources, and why not, pursue the research…

Tuesday, June 8, 2021


 I've had my surgery. They believe they removed all the cancer. There will be at least one follow up surgery to remove 'growths' they do not believe are cancerous. That's good, I think. And in three months they will reevaluate the area they removed.

Research for volume 3 of SI is progressing, but very slowly. I'm still researching A. P. Adams, focusing on his adherents and supporters. It appears that he generated interest among those with social prominence and money. This represents his own social back ground at President Adams' grandson. 

An element of the intro essay is a discussion of mainstream and fringe religions that approached prophetic studies in the same way as did Russell. This is something that blog readers can contribute to if they are so inclined.

I have doctor's appointments over the next six months. I hurt. Some of that will not go away; it's old age related. So research and writing will continue to move slowly. Suggestions and research results from you are very welcome.

Monday, June 7, 2021


New York Herald - September 24, 1921
You may need to click the image to see it entire.

The Perrysburg, Ohio, Journal
May 20, 1915

Any additional information will be appreciated.


Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Frank L. Draper

Guest post by Bernhard

He was at the forefront of Bible Students for 25 years and was one of the most prominent and beloved, though he was never an officer of the Watchtower Society, nor wrote articles for the magazine now known as The Watchtower and hereafter referred to by that title. But he was a leading evangelist, colporteur, pilgrim brother, pastor, convention speaker and loyal supporter of Charles T. Russell.

When and where was Frank born?

The US Census for 1910 provides some basic information. Around 1908-1910 and maybe some later Frank was a member of the Brooklyn Bethel family in New York. The census tells us he is 54 years old and was born in Ohio. This leads us back to the years 1856 or 1857.

In the Daily Heavenly Manna book, owned by Rose Leffler, we find the entry that Frank was born on March 2. The Leffler family (parents and eight children) embraced the Truth in 1897, when Frank Draper spoke on “The Second Coming of Christ“ in Tiffin, Ohio.

With this information we can find Frank Draper in the familysearch system. He was born on March 2, 1856 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania. His father was James Draper, born 1831 in England, and his mother Jane Smith who was born 1833 in Ireland. He had four siblings: William H., Annie, Emma J. and Mary Elizabeth.

Around 1879/80 he married 19 year old Elvira, born in Ohio in 1861, and from then on lived in Niles, Trumbull, Ohio. (US Census 1880). His profession at this time is “laborer in R. M.”, his wife is a housekeeper. He lived for a long time in Ohio and that's maybe the reason why he told the 1910 US Census that he was born in Ohio, but actually it was in Pennsylvania. Tragically, his wife died relatively young, possibly from a serious illness and Frank became a widower.

 In July 1890 Frank is mentioned for the first time in The Watchtower (July 1890, p. 5443, reprints). He wrote a letter to Brother Russell:

“Brother Wise (Aaron C.) and myself are pushing the battle. Many are becoming awakened on these questions which are so dear to us. There is an increasing demand for reading matter, especially Old Theology Tract No. 1. Last evening we held a street service. People crowded us almost to suffocation for Tracts and Slips, and some wanted DAWN. We expect to open a building  for meetings soon. In the midst of reproach and evil speaking we are "looking unto Jesus."“

This shows that Draper joined the Bible Students before 1890.

When there were accusations against Russell by J. B. Adamson, Otto Von Zech and others in 1894, Draper took a stand for Russell. He wrote in The Watchtower June 11, 1894, p. 7963:

“Am doing what I am able to support and spread the truth.“

In 1894 he began as part-time pilgrim. In The Watchtower, December 1894, we read:

Brother M. L. McPhail only has been giving all of his time to this work, and he alone has all of his expenses paid out of the Tract Society's fund, the other laborers in this branch of the service, Brothers Antoszewski, Austin, Bell, Blundin, Bohnet, Draper, Merrill, Murphy, Owen, Page, Ransom, Richards, Thorn, Webb, Weber, Weimar, West, Williams, Wise and Witter, being traveling salesmen, colporteurs or business men whose expenses are met by their business or otherwise and who delight to give an evening or a Sunday, as they can arrange it, in serving the Lord's flock--pointing to the green pastures and the still waters and feeding and rejoicing with the "sheep."

He was already giving speeches at least as early as July 1895. [1] At the end of 1896, while in Kentucky, he held 14 meetings in one week, three in private homes and 11 in public places. He reported that in one particular county he had experienced the prejudices of locals against Bible Students, who even used guns, and opposition from a member of the Baptist Church which tried to prevent the holding of meetings, but they did take place anyway. In another place, the Shakers, who usually did not allow preachers of another religion to hold meetings among them, allowed Draper to preach in their school; he was able to hold three meetings there with an average attendance of 75 or 80. [2] In August 1899, Russell had planned to send Draper to Kansas by October 1 of that year, [3] and he was supposed to deliver speeches at the St. Louis convention assembly on October 6. [4] In November 1899 he visited Indiana Territory. [5] By early 1900 he was in Texas and Edward Brenneisen praised him, considering him a capable orator. [6] At the 1903 Memorial, he was in Chetopa, Kansas, [7] and was one of the speakers at the convention in Denver, Colorado, July 10-12 of the same year. [8] He visited Texas in early 1904, [9] and was a speaker at the Los Angeles conventions [10] in St. Louis in October of the same year, [11] in Asbury Park in July 1906, [12] from Indianapolis in 1907, [13] in July he was on his way to Kokoma, [14] from Norfolk on October 3 of the same year, [15] from Put-in-Bay on September 3, 1908, [16] and Denver, Colorado, in July 1909. [17] In 1911 Russell sent him to his parents homeland, the United Kingdom and Ireland. [18]

Samuel Kuesthardt give us the report that Frank Draper was also a baptizer, for example he baptized two in Toledo, Ohio (The Watchtower, August 15, 1898).

In 1908, he was among those who reacted favorably to Russell's vow, made by adherents concerning the attitude to be adopted towards the opposite sex. [19] Likewise, during the New Covenant schism, he positioned himself vigorously in favor of Russell: indeed, he praised the latter for his articles published in October and November of 1909.

In 1913, he congratulated Russell for not having insisted too much, in the last two or three years, on a date concerning the end of Gentile times. [20] He highly praised the Photo-Drama of Creation, which he described as "the most successful project the Society has ever launched". [21]

What was Draper's personality?

Morgan T. Lewis, a staff member at the Bible House, described him  (The Watchtower, February 15, 1898):

His talks and his fine Christian character impressed us very much, and we want to express our gratitude for the helpful occasion. He has a remarkable talent for presenting the truth; so easy do the words flow and so forceful, that they impress the candid hearer. He spoke Saturday evening at Troy and Sunday morning at my home to sixteen of us on the "Narrow Way," and in the evening on the upper features of the chart to about twenty-five, mostly interested ones. The talks did me much good, as I learned how to arrange the talks, and will make use of his plan when I have occasion to speak in public. I want to express myself in regard to the work that Bro. Draper is doing. I think it is one of the best opportunities to help on the cause, and I almost envy the dear Brother the great blessing he must get in going around and meeting and helping the friends. What a joy his must be.

Ernest David Sexton remembered Frank Draper in the 1930 Souvenir Convention Report:

He was a short man; and when I saw him, I did not like to have him notice it, -- notice that I saw it, -- but he had the most prodigious looking feet I ever saw for a small man. One night he called attention to it. (They were bigger than mine.) He was talking about helping one another. He said, You cannot go along because you are strong, and ignore the weak. The Apostle says the uncomely members need the more attention. "You will notice that I have very large feet. That is, I haven't large feet in fact, but I wear very large shoes. My feet are very sore and I have to wrap them up with bandages. When I go to bed at night, I always get a switch and switch my feet because they are so uncomely. No, I don't. I give them more attention, more than any other part of my body. I salve them, and pat them, and give them all sorts of attention because they are uncomely.

Draper even allowed himself to advise Russell on certain matters. In 1905 he criticized the translation "running towards the goal" in Philippians 3:14, a translation which had been suggested to Russell by one of the pilgrims claiming to have received it from a Hellenist scholar. As the translation does not fit the picture of a race, Draper disagreed with Russell and suggested that "the thing be presented to us as someone who knows Greek".

With the end of 1915 he stopped touring as a pilgrim. Why? In the St. Paul Enterprise (January 1916) he wrote that he came to Detroit, Michigan, and stayed there at 148 Lincoln Ave. The reason was his aged mother lived there and he needed to care for her. He became a part of the 250 strong Detroit class. In this class he met a sister named Lois (Louise) Haskins, nee Swain.

In April 22, 1916 he gave a talk at O.E.S. (Order of the Eastern Star) Temple, 43 Alexandrine West, at 3 p.m., Subject: “Do the Scriptures Teach that the Dead Are Asleep?“

One month later he married Lois Swain (daughter of Alexander Swain und Julia Arn) on May 29, 1916. The marriage entry shows that Draper was still an evangelist. Lois (Louise) was born on February 26, 1871).

Lois Swain was previously married to Seth L. Haskins (1866 - February 18, 1909) on January 7, 1888, and they had one daughter Bertha E., born 1894.

On October 31, 1916, Charles T. Russell died and the funeral took place on November 5. Many prominent brothers gave funeral talks. But remarkably Frank Draper was not at the burial. Nowhere is he mentioned; although he was a capable speaker he did not give a funeral talk.

On June 1, 1917, p.175 Frank Draper was mentioned for the last time in The Watchtower:


Although dear Brother Russell will be greatly missed by us all, he is greatly the gainer, having gone beyond the veil to forever with the Lord. You may be assured that whatever influence I can exert in the interest of the SOCIETY and the work it is doing, I will be very glad to exert. My humble prayer is that aIl the dear brethren at the Headquarters and everywhere may work together most harmoniously and successfully. With much Christian love and very best wishes in which Sister Draper joins me, I am. Your brother in the Lord, Frank Draper, Michigan.

On November 10, 1917 he had a talk  at the O.E.S. Temple: Subject: “The Judgement Day. What is it for“

Although he urged others to work harmoniously with the brothers, he was obviously no longer willing to do so himself. We find him mentioned in The Herald of Christ's Kingdom, September 15, 1919:

“Blessed Fellowship at Detroit“

THIS WAS INDEED very manifestly the senti­ment of all of the brethren in attendance at the Convention held in Detroit, Aug. 30, 31, Sept. 1, when a most blessed season of fellow­ship was enjoyed. ...

It was noted that there were about twelve of the old Bethel and Bible House family, formerly in close association with Brother Russell, present, and as many as eleven of the old Pilgrims who had been recognized and received appointments under Brother Russell's supervision in the years gone by. These all, of course, had a part in the program and in the ministry at this Convention. Among this number were Brothers Frank Draper, F. A. Hall, P. E. Thomson, F. F. Cook, S. J. Arnold, H. E. Hollister, E. W. V. Kuehn and four of the Editorial staff of this journal.

This shows us that Frank Draper had left the Watch Tower Society and joined or sympathized with the Pastoral Bible Institute, but like at the Watch Tower Society he did not become an officer. From later testimony his active contact with the PBI was short-lived.

Back in 1909 there had been the schism over the new covenant issue, led by Ernest Henninges in Australia. Although Draper supported the Watch Tower position at the time, after CTR’s death certain doubts came to the surface again. After disappearing from view for well over ten years, Draper wrote to Henninges in 1932. He outlined his path since the death of CTR, and what he now believed. It was published in the July 1932 issue of Henninges’ paper. Draper wrote:

Dear Brother in Christ: For a year, or more, I have felt that I would like to write to you. It is about a year ago that I met Brother Benson, who told me about you and the work you, and Sister H., are in. For nearly twenty years prior to meeting Brother Benson I had not heard a word as to your whereabouts. Therefore was real glad to learn about you from Bro. B., to whom I am indebted for your literature—books and N.C.A.—that I have read with great interest and benefit.

Of course you will recall how strenuously I contended with you, by correspondence, after you went to Australia, in support of Brother Russell's views re the Sin Offering and Covenants. Am sure that those views were honestly held by me—largely, I now see, because so much stress was laid on "that servant" idea. But I was not fully satisfied with Bro. Russell's explanations, as shown by the following: I asked myself the question, "Why did the Apostle have so much to say, in his letter to the Hebrews, about the New Covenant if the brethren addressed were not under it?" Then, too, I saw that a verse you have used in your writings must have some special significance with respect to the New Covenant and the brethren therein addressed. I refer to the l5th verse of the 9th chapter of Hebrews.

I was so much interested in this particular verse that I asked Brother Russell about its meaning. He tried to explain it to suit his idea of the time when the New Covenant would become effective. But his explanation did not satisfy me.

Because I did not fully agree with Brother R. In his teaching that everything would collapse in 1914, I was put out of the "Pilgrim" work. About that time it was most openly taught in the "Watch Tower" that the Church shares with Christ in providing the blood of the Ransom. That was altogether too much for me, and I wrote my protest to Bro. R. For ten years, or more, since then, I did not take an active interest in the Truth, though I continued to believe it.

About two years ago my interest was renewed, and I began to study the blessed Word of God more diligently than ever, and to pray more earnestly, also. Soon light began to break clearly upon my mind re the Sin Offering and the Covenants. Then, about a year later, through the kindness of Brother Benson, your literature came into my hands the reading of which has greatly clarified the Bible teachings on these subjects, as well as some other sacred truths.

For about a year I was an elder in a little class here, but my present views re the Sin Offering and the Covenants have practically separated me from the class. Very few of the friends seem to want the truth with respect to these two essential doctrines found in the Bibele. But I am perfectly willing to stand alone, if necessary, in defence of these precious Truths. I love the Lord, and His Holy Word, and His people much more since coining to see clearly regarding the Sin Offering and the Covenants.

Please convey my Christian love to Sister H., and accept same yourself. Your brother in Christ,—F. L. Draper..

There is a little more we can find out about him. The 1920 US Census shows that Frank & Lois & Bertha still lived in Michigan. Stepdaughter Bertha E., was living with them. The census gives Frank‘s occupation now as masseurist in an auto factory. Bertha married a Howard E. Waite on November 23, 1920.

Then on September 15, 1929 Louise died at the age of 58 in Detroit and Frank was again a widower.

The 1930 US Census shows us that Frank is now living in Los Angeles. Maybe he decided to move after his wife died. He now lives there as a lodger.

Frank L. Draper died on October 4, 1937 at the age of 81 and he was buried in the same cemetery as his second wife in Detroit, Wayne, Michigan. His death certificate gives his occupation as minister, retired for twenty years.

1. The Watchtower, July 15, 1895, p. 1843

2. The Watchtower, December 1, 1886, p. 2076

3. The Watchtower, August 1, 1899, p. 2515

4. The Watchtower, August 1, 1899, p. 2516

5. The Watchtower, April 15, 1900, p. 2605

6. The Watchtower, February 1, 1900, p. 2576

7. The Watchtower, May 15, 1903, p. 3194

8. The Watchtower, October 1, 1903, p. 3250

9. The Watchtower, April 1904, p. 3349

10. The Watchtower, June 15, 1904, p.3383

11. The Watchtower, October 15, 1904, p. 3444

12. The Watchtower, August 15, 1906, p.3838

13. The Watchtower, July 1907, p. 4026

14. The Watchtower, July 1907, p. 4032

15. The Watchtower, November 1, 1907, p. 4081

16. The Watchtower, September 15, 1908, p.4244

17. The Watchtower, September 1, 1909, p. 4462

19. The Watchtower, June 15, 1908, p. 4192

20. The Watchtower, November 15, 1913, p. 5355

21. The Watchtower, April, 1914, p. 5447



This story of Frank Draper is included in the new book Who's Who – in the Bible Student Movement before 1920. In it we find 4000 names, some biographical notes and short biographies. Also included are almost 1100 portrait photos. It can be found on Amazon.